PRINCIPLES OF BIO II        

Sectional Outline  #3  

 

        

 

           I.     DNA

                                    structure

                                                nucleotides

                                                            4 nitrogenous bases

                                                double helix

                                    information coding

                                                base pairing TA, CG

                                    making a protein

                                        transcription

                                                formation of messenger RNA

                                        translation

                                                formation of proteins

                                    replication

        

           II.    RNA

                                    structure - single strand

                                                base matching UA, CG

                                    messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA

                                   

        

            III.    Mitosis - asexual organisms & cells of sexual organisms other than sex cells                                

                                    prokaryotes - binary fission

                                    eukaryotes

                                                interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

                                    cytokinesis

                                                animal cells - cleavage furrow

                                                plant cells - cell plate

        

            IV.    Meiosis - sex cells of sexually reproducing organisms

            phases

                                    interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

                                    interphase II, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II

                                    adaptive significance - variation

 

            V.    Development

                                    Prenatal

            zygotic, embryonic, fetal

            Postnatal

            newborn, infant, child, adolescent, adult

 

           VI.     Inheritance

                                    Mendel:    first law- law of segregation

                                                    second law - law of independent assortment

                                    Punnets square

                                                dominant & recessive

                                    alternative inheritance possibilities

                                                incomplete dominance, complimentary genes, epistasis                 

           VII.   Biotechnology

                                    genetic engineering

                                                gene therapy vs germ line therapy

                                    cloning