ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II

Exam 1 Study Guide

 


 

I.     Digestive System

                        functions

                                    digestion & absorption

                        mechanical digestion

                                    teeth, stomach

                        chemical (enzymatic) digestion

                                    oral cavity, stomach, pancreas, cells of the small intestines

                        what gets digested

                                    carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, mineral, nucleic acids

                        regions of the digestive tract...and what they do                        

                                    oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines

                        4 tunics (layers) of the digestive tract

                                    mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa                     

                        detergents

                                    liver & gall bladder

serous membranes

                                    peritonium        

 

II.    Respiratory System

                        principles of respiration

                                    adequate size, moist surface, transport, protection

                        functions

                                    gas exchange, voice, protection

                        regions of the respiratory system

                                    nasal cavity, pharynx, glottis, larynx, trachea, lungs

                        lungs

                                    bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

                        mechanics of breathing

                        serous membranes

                                    parietal pluera, pulmanary (visceral) pleura

                        respiratory volumes

                                    tidal & residual volumes

                                    inspiratory & expiratory reserves

                                    inspiratory, vital, & total lung capacities

                        control systems

                                    respiratory center (medulla)

                        exercise

                        aging

                                     

III.    Cardiovascular System

                        functions

                                    transport, regulate blood supply

                        heart

                                    structure

                                    functions

                                                blood pressure, one way flow, routing, regulate blood flow

                                    pericardium

                                                fibrous,  parietal, visceral

                                    stimulation

                                    control systems

                                                cardioregulatory center (medulla)

                                                hormones

                                    heart signs

                                                pulse, pressure, heart sounds, ekg

                                    arrythmias (abnormalities)

                        blood flow

                        nutrient absorption pathway

                        blood vessels

                                    arteries & veins

                                                functions

                                                            carry blood, exchange nutrients & gasses

                                                3 tunics (layers)

                                                            adventitia, media, intima

                                                abnormalities

                                                            arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis                                           

                        blood

                                    functions

                                                transport, body temperature, defenses, clots

                                    plasma

                                    formed elements

                                                erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets

                                    hemoglobin

                                                transport of gasses

                        aging

                                    decreased heart function, heart rate, & valve function

                                    enlargement of left ventricle, increased chance of arrythymias