ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I
Exam 3 Study Guide


 

I.           Endocrine System

                        characteristics
                         sites of production
                                    12 major gland
                                                spineal, hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, pancreas, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, ovaries, testis
                        transport
                        nature of hormones
                                    structural categories
                                                steroid / peptide
                                    functional catagories
                        target cell response intensity
                           amount of hormone (amplitude modulated signal)
                                    up and down regulation
                        hormone action
                                    intracellular
                                    extracellular
                                                gated channel
                                                cyclic AMP as second messenger
                        control of hormone production
                                    feedback systems
                        hormone breakdown                    

II.        Specific Endocrine Activities

regulation of blood sugar
flight or fight
water balance
growth
blood calcium levels
biological clock
      

III.       Nervous System

                        Stimulus / Response
                Functions
                        Central Nervous System / Peripheral Nervous System

IV.       Cells

                        Neurons
                                    multipolar, bipolar, unipolar
                        Neuroglial Cells
                                    Central Nervous System
                                                Astrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal, Oligodendrocytes
                            Peripheral Nervous System
                                                Neurolemmocytes (Schwann Cells), Satellite

V.        Action Potentials

                        Electrochemical impulse
                        Gated channels
                                    electrical - voltage gated channels
                                    chemical - chemical gated channels

VI.       Synaptic Transmission

Transmission to another cell
                        Excitory post synaptic potential / Inhibitory post synaptic potential
            Neurotransmitters
                acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, endorphines