CUYAHOGA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Health Careers & Science Division / Metro Campus

 

SYLLABUS

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II ON CAMPUS

 


 

I.    COURSE: BIO 2341

                        Fall 2018
                        Section Numbers:  Lecture 82125 Lab 83368
                        Classes meet:  Lecture: Tuesday & Thursday 11:00am -12:15pm  Lab:  Tuesday & Thursday 12:30pm-1:45pm     
                        Prerequisites:  BIO 2331 or departmental approval

                        Last day to withdraw with a W:  November 16, 2018
                        Pass/No Pass option requires instructor approval

 

II.   CREDIT HOURS:       4 credit hours

 

III.  INSTRUCTOR :         Richard London

                                                            Office:    MHCS 216
                                                Office Hours:   Tuesday 2pm-5pm, Thursday 2pm-4pm
                                                Virtual Office Hours:  Monday 11am-1pm, Wednesday 11am-2pm

                                                            E-Mail:   richard.london@tri-c.edu

                                                            Phone:    216-987-4255
                                                WEBSITE:  http://londonwebsite.info

 

IV.   COURSE DESCRIPTION :  Study of structure and function of the human body. Considers structure, function, and terminology of cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary systems, digestive and reproductive system. Immunology, cellular division, embryological and fetal development, classical genetics and genetic technology considered. 

 

V.    REQUIRED LAB BOOK :  Allen, Laboratory Manual for Anatomy & Physiology, Wiley Publishing
                                                       6th Edition: Online ISBN 9781119304142  Tri-C Bookstore ISBN 9781119429012

        FREE TEXTBOOK :  https://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/anatomy-and-physiology
        OPTIONAL
TEXTBOOK: Marieb, Anatomy & Physiology, 10th Edition, Pearson ISBN 9780133997040

 

VI.  PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:  Upon satisfactory completion of BIO 2341 - Anatomy and Physiology II, the student should be able to perform the
           following outcomes and supporting objectives:

  1. Describe and differentiate between the gross and microscopic anatomy of the organs, cells, and tissues of the cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, digestive and reproductive systems.
  2. Apply fundamental knowledge of the cardiovascular system to succceed in the preparatory coursework for the health professions, biomedical research and advanced scientific study.
    1. Describe the composition of blood.
    2. Explain A,B,O, Rh blood typing
    3. Relate the events in the cardiac cycle to the anatomy of the heart.
    4. Trace major circulatory routes
    5. Measure human blood pressure and relate blood pressure to cardiovascular homeostasis.
  3. Apply fundamental knowledge of the lymphatic /immune system to succceed in the preparatory coursework for the health professions, biomedical research and advanced scientific study.
    1. Compare and contrast specific and non-specific immunity.
    2. Describe cell-mediated immunity and antibody mediated immunity and state the steps involved in each.
  4. Apply fundamental knowledge of the respiratory system to succceed in the preparatory coursework for the health professions, biomedical research and advanced scientific study.
    1. Distinguish between the different types of pulmonary air volumes and capacities.
    2. Apply gas laws to respiratory physiology
    1. Discuss the general principles of fluid and electrolyte balance, acid base balance and homeostasis of body fluids.
    2. List the steps in urine formation.
  5. Apply fundamental knowledge of the urinary system to succceed in the preparatory coursework for the health professions, biomedical research and advanced scientific study.
    1. Discuss the general principles of fluid and electrolyte balance, acid base balance and homeostasis of body fluids.
    2. List the steps in urine formation.
  6. Apply fundamental knowledge of the digestive system to succceed in the preparatory coursework for the health professions, biomedical research and advanced scientific study.
    1. Explain how chemical digestion differs from mechanical digestion.
    2. Describe the various movements of the Gastrointestional tract (GI).
    3. Define a nutrient and describe the functions of the six classes of nutrients.
  7. Apply fundamental knowledge of the reproductive  systems to succceed in the preparatory coursework for the health professions, biomedical research and advanced scientific study.
    1. Compare and contrast the structures and functions of the male and female reproductive systems.
    2. Describe the events in the ovarian and menstrual cycles.
  8. Relate the concepts of mitotic and meiotic cell division to cellular repair, gamete formation, and tissue formation.
  9. Describe the stages in the development of the zygote, embryo, and fetus.
  10. Describe the events of parturition and the control of lactation.
  11. Discuss the principles of classical and contemporary genetics.

VII.   COURSE METHOD:  This course will consist of lectures and laboratory work aided by video materials and in class demonstrations.
                                                Please note the following procedures.

 

                        1. Though there is no talking during lectures questions are encouraged.

                        2. If you need to leave temporarily during class please do so quietly.                    

 

VIII.  TESTING AND EVALUATION:

 

                         EXAMS - There will be four sectional exams given during the term each worth 125 points.

 

                                 Written Portion (100 points/exam) consists of
                                                25 multiple choice (2 points each)
                                                10 true/false (1 point each)
                                                5 fill in the blank or matching (2 points each),

                                                2 short essays (10 points each)
                                                Lab Exercises
(10 points). 

                                                            Lab Exercises consist of attending each lab session
                                                            There will be a 2 point deduction for each lab missed up to a total of 10


                                 Photo Portion (25 points/exam) consists of
                                                25 multiple choice questions (1 point each)  relative to photos shown on our website

 

                                 The use of cell phones or electronic devices during the exam is prohibited                     

                        SUMMARY OF POINTS
 

                                           4 Exams  125 points each                Total    500 points

                        GRADE EVALUATION

                                          500-450 A, 449-400 B, 399-350 C, 349-300 D, Below 300 F 

 

                        EXTRA CREDIT

                                          20 Points - Optional Internet Research Report:
                                                             The instructions, contained in a separate handout, should be followed carefully.
                                                             This report MUST be turned in on time to receive any extra credit points!       

 

IX.    ATTENDANCE:  Regular class and lab attendance is expected! Failure to attend class does not constitute an automatic withdrawal.

                            Students wishing to withdraw must follow College policy and time lines. The student is responsible for all information and assignments given in
                            class during their absence.  The student is expected to be prepared for any exam or quiz when they resume classes. Exams are primarily
                            based on lecture, lab, and video materials.  Students arriving late to class will not be given additional time to complete an exam.

 

                            MAKEUP EXAMS

                            IF YOU MISS A REGULAR EXAM DATE YOU MAY TAKE A MAKEUP EXAM AS DESCRIBED BELOW


                            The written portion of the make up exams consist of 10 complete essay questions therefore a greater amount of time should be allowed to
                            complete these tests.  Students that have done well in the past have taken 3 to 4 hours to complete the makeup exam.

 

                            The photo potion of the make-up exam is the same format as the original though the structures to be labeled will vary.

 

                            The make up exam is to be completed no later than 2 weeks after the regular exam and must be taken at the Metro Assessment Center. 

                            Please check before going to the metro assessment center to make sure the exam is there.

X.  FOR TECHNICAL HELP:

                            WITH THE ONLINE LECTURES OR CD CONTACT ME!

                            WITH BLACKBOARD AND OTHER ISSUES FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS BELOW...DO NOT CONTACT ME

                            If you experience a technical problem, you should call the 24/7 Customer Care Technical Support at 216-987-HELP
                            to receive technical phone support in the following areas:  Blackboard, Login issues (password resets),  Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office,
                            & Tri-C email

                            Some technical support issues may not be able to be resolved over the phone. While the Customer Care Technical Support team will work
                            diligently to assist students, it is possible that personal computer problems may require the student to contact outside technical support for
                            assistance.

                            There are computers available for student use at each Campus Technology Learning Center (TLC) and your local public library.
                            These resources should be used to keep up with your coursework while you work to resolve a computer problem.

                           COMPUTER PROBLEMS OF ANY KIND ARE NOT AN EXCUSE FOR WORK THAT WAS MISSED

XI.  DISTANCE LEARNING CLASSES:  Information regarding distance learning classes can be found at the website - http://londonwebsite.info

 

XII.  WITHDRAWAL:   Withdrawal from a course for academic reasons must be initiated by a student prior to the withdrawal deadlines published  in the Class Schedule booklet each semester. Withdrawal must be in writing on specific forms available in the Office of Admissions and Records at each campus. Students who officially withdraw from a course prior to the last day of the second week of the semester will have no notation made on their permanent record. While an instructor may withdraw a student for excessive absences as outlined above, students not attending classes for any reasons should not expect an instructor to drop them officially from class. It is the student’s responsibility to withdraw from class officially by completing a withdrawal form from the Office of Admissions and Records by the deadline date. Failure to do so could result in an “F” grade for the course.

 

                             XIII.  INCOMPLETE (I) GRADES:    An “I” (incomplete) grade means that a student

                                            has not completed course requirements as outlined in section on “Evaluation Procedures” due to circumstances judged by the instructor to be beyond the student’s control. The student must request an “I” (incomplete) grade. It is not granted automatically.  Incomplete grades must be removed no later than the sixth week of the academic semester.

       

XIV.  ACADEMIC CREDIT: aware one (1) semester hour of college credit, the Ohio Board of Regents require two hours of significant student study outside the class for each one hour in class for the equivalent of an academic semester (16 weeks). This is a two credit hour class with two hours of lecture. Therefore, the required course load requirement is four hours of effective student effort per week for the entire semester. Course requirements have been designed to comply with the requirements of the Board of Regents. Make sure you can give this course an average of 4 hours a week by prioritizing your time accordingly. Proper planning, prioritization and dedication will enhance your success in this course.

 

XV.  CHEATING: Any student found cheating or plagiarizing would be withdrawn from class with a letter grade of F. Cheating includes but is not limited to copying from another student’s exam, quiz or homework assignments. This includes both present and past students.

 

XVI.  AMERICAN WITH DISABILITIES ACT STATEMENT: Any student with a documented disability (e.g. physical, learning, psychiatric, visual, hearing, etc.) who needs to arrange reasonable accommodations may contact The Access/Disabled Student Services office. If you suspect you may have a condition that would hinder your academic performance, the Access/Disabled Student Services office may be helpful in making a disability determination. Please contact the office at 987-4290.

 

XVII.  STUDENT CODE OF CONDUCT:

                        Directions for finding Procedure 3354-1-30-03.5 Student Conduct Code

          Students

      1.      Login to My Tri-C Space. Click the College Life tab. On that page, go to the area "College Guidelines."
2.      Click on Tri-C's Policies and Procedures and perform an additional login to the Sharepoint on the knowledge.tri-c.edu server to access the site:
         Office of the President Policies & Procedures. 
3.      Click the link for [3354:1-30-xx] Academic & Student Affairs Policies & Procedures.
4.      Finally, on the next page, you will be able to view the Adobe PDF files entitled "3354-1-3003.5 Student conduct code" and "3354-1-30-03.6 Student judicial system."

 

XVIII.  SUPPLEMENTAL HELP: 

                 

                  STUDENT SUCCESS CENTER:  Room S&T332

                              Lecture notes * Lab Slides * Videos * Tutoring

                  TRI-C STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES:  Room SSC 208

                        Career Workshops (note taking, memory techniques, test anxiety, etc)

 

XIX.   ONLINE ACCESSABILITY STATEMENT:


If you need any special course adaptations or accomodations because of a documented disability, please notify your instructorwithin a reasonable length of time, preferably the first week of the term with formal notice of that need (i.e. an official letter from the ACCESS office).  Accomodations will not be made retroactively.

                                    For specific information pertaining to ADA accomodation please contact your campus ACCESS office or visit online at:  http://www.tri-c.edu/accessprograms.  Blackboard accessability information is available at:  http://access.blackboard.com

 

                                    Eastern             (216) 987-2052        TDD (216) 987-2230*
Metropolitan    (216) 987-4344        TDD (216) 987-4048*
Western            (216) 987-5079        TDD (216) 987-5117*
Westshore        (216) 987-5079        TDD (216) 987-5117*
Brunswick        (216) 987-5079        TDD (216) 987-5117*
Off Site            (216) 987-5079        TDD (216) 987-5117*

XX.  STUDENT WORKLOAD EXPECTED:  Academic Credit – For online courses, the standard expectation is that for each one (1) hour of college

                        credit, students will spend three (3) hours each week for a full-term or 16 week class completing directed instruction, reading, studying,  

                        completing assignments, etc.  Students should prioritize their time accordingly.

 

XXI.  TOPICAL OUTLINE:

  1. Cardiovascular system
    1. Blood
    2. Functions
    3. Composition
    4. Hemopoiesis
    5. Formed elements
      1. Erythrocytes (red blood cells - RBC)
        1. Structure
        2. Hemoglobin
        3. Life span
        4. Numbers
        5. Laboratory values
        6. Disorders
      2. Leukocytes (white blood cells -WBC)
        1. General characteristics
        2. Granular leukocytes
          1. Neutrophils
          2. Eosinophils
          3. Basophils
        3. Agranular leukocytes
          1. Lymphocytes
          2. Monocytes
        4. Laboratory values
        5. Disorders
      3. Thrombocytes (platelets)
        1. Structure
        2. Function: clotting cascade
        3. Laboratory values
        4. Disorders
    6. Plasma
      1. Water
      2. Solutes
    7. Blood types
      1. A,B,O groups
      2. Rh factor
      3. Compatible/incompatible transfusions
      4. Maternal/fetal incompatibility
    8. Heart
      1. Anatomy
        1. Pericardium
        2. Walls
        3. Chambers
        4. Vessels
        5. Valves
        6. Coronary circulation
      2. Physiology
        1. Conduction system
        2. Electrocardiogram (EKG) 
        3. Cardiac cycle
          1. Atrial diastole
          2. Atrial systole
          3. Ventricular systole
          4. ventricular diastole
          5. Timing
          6. Sounds
        4. Cardiac output
          1. Formula
          2. End diastolic volume
          3. End systolic volume
          4. Starling's law
          5. Regulation of the cardiac cycle
          6. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
          7. Baroreceptors
          8. Chemoreceptors
          9. Chemicals
          10. Temperature
    9. Blood vessels
      1. Arteries
        1. Histology
        2. Blood supply
        3. Properties
        4. Anastomoses
        5. Types
      2. Capillaries
        1. Structure
        2. Function
      3. Veins
        1. Histology
        2. Function
        3. Compared to arteries
      4. Physiology of circulation
        1. Pressure values
        2. Arterial blood pressure
          1. Formula
          2. Factors which affect blood pressure
            1. Cardiac output
            2. Peripheral resistance
        3. Control of blood pressure
          1. Vasomotor center (medulla)
          2. Baroreceptors
          3. Chemoreceptors
          4. Chemicals
          5. Autoregulation
      5. Circulatory routes
        1. Systemic circulation
        2. Pulmonary circulation
        3. Fetal circulation
  2. Lymphatic system
    1. Functions
    2. Anatomy
      1. lymph
      2. vessels
        1. Lymph capillaries
        2. Lymphatics
        3. Thoracic duct (left lymphatic)
        4. Right lymphatic duct
      3. Lymph tissue
  3. Respiratory system
    1. Functions
    2. Respiratory organs
      1. Nose
      2. Pharynx
      3. Larynx
      4. Trachea
      5. Bronchi
      6. Lungs
        1. Pleural membrane
        2. Gross anatomy
        3. Lobules
        4. Alveolar/capillary membrane
        5. Alveolar wall
        6. Blood supply
    3. Physiology of respiration
      1. Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
        1. Inspiration
        2. Expiration
        3. Compliance
        4. Airway resistance
        5. Modified respiratory movements
      2. Pulmonary air volumes and capacities
        1. Air volumes
        2. Lung capacities
        3. Minute volume
      3. Gas laws
        1. Charles' law
        2. Dalton's law
        3. Henry's law
      4. External respiration
      5. internal respiration
      6. Transport of respiratory gases
        1. Oxygen
        2. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
      7. Control of respiration
        1. Nervous system
          1. Medullary rhythmicity center
            1. Inspiratory center
            2. Expiratory center
          2. Pneumotaxic center
          3. Apneustic center
        2. Factors influencing control
          1. Cortical influences
          2. Herring-Breuer reflex
          3. Chemical stimuli
          4. Blood pressure
          5. Temperature
  4. Urinary system
    1. Functions
    2. Kidney
      1. Gross anatomy
        1. Cortex
        2. Medulla
        3. Pelvis
      2. Nephron
        1. Structure
        2. types
          1. Cortical
          2. Juxtamedullary
        3. Blood flow
        4. Juxtaglomerular apparatus
    3. Physiology of the nephron
      1. Filtration
        1. Adaptation of the corpuscle
        2. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
      2. Tubular reabsorption
      3. Tubular secretion
      4. Regulation of urine concentration
        1. Counter current multiplier mechanism
        2. Role of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
      5. Renal clearance
    4. Ureters
      1. Anatomy
      2. Physiology
    5. Urinary bladder
      1. Anatomy
        1. Trigone
        2. Histology
        3. Sphincters
      2. Micturition
    6. Urethra
    7. Urine
      1. Normal properties
      2. Urinalysis: tests for urinary function
    1. Fluids, electrolytes, acids, and bases
      1. Fluids and electrolytes
        1. Water compartments
        2. Fluid balance
        3. Electrolytes
        4. Movement of body fluids
        5. Starling's law of capillaries
        6. Imbalances
      2. Acid/base balance
        1. Buffers
          1. Definition
          2. Important buffers
        2. Respiratory regulation of pH
        3. Urinary control of pH
        4. Acid/base imbalances
          1. Respiratory acidosis
          2. Respiratory alkalosis
          3. Metabolic acidosis
          4. Metabolic alkalosis
  5. Digestive system
    1. Introduction
      1. Definitions
        1. Mechanical digestion
        2. Chemical digestion
        3. Digestive end products
      2. Digestive processes
      3. Organization
        1. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
        2. Accessory organs
      4. Control
        1. Nervous
        2. Hormonal
      5. Histology
        1. Tuncia mucosa
        2. Submucosa
        3. Muscularis
        4. Serosa
      6. Peritoneum
        1. Arrangement
        2. Extensions
      7. Sphincters
        1. Action
        2. Control
        3. Types
    2. Mouth
      1. Anatomy
      2. Salivary glands
        1. Names and location
        2. Composition of saliva
        3. Functions of saliva
        4. Control of secretion of saliva (parasympathetic)
      3. Teeth
        1. Anatomy
        2. Dentitions: deciduous versus permanent
      4. Digestion in the mouth
        1. Mechanical
        2. Chemical
    3. Esophagus
      1. Anatomy
      2. Physiology
    4. Stomach
      1. Anatomy
      2. Histology
        1. Rugae
        2. Gastric pits
        3. Muscularis
      3. Digestion
        1. Mechanical
        2. Chemical
      4. Regulation of gastric secretion
        1. Stimulation
        2. Inhibition
      5. Regulation of gastric emptying (peristalsis)
        1. Stimulation
        2. Inhibition
        3. Absorption
    5. Pancreas (heterocrine organ)
      1. Anatomy
      2. Histology
        1. Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
        2. Acini cells
      3. Pancreatic juice
      4. Control of secretion of pancreatic juice
    6. Liver
      1. Anatomy
      2. Histology
      3. Blood supply
        1. Hepatic artery
        2. Hepatic vein
        3. Hepatic portal vein
      4. Bile
        1. Composition
        2. Function
        3. Regulation of production
      5. Functions
        1. Metabolism
        2. Detoxification and purification
        3. Storage
        4. Bile production
        5. Phagocytosis
    7. Small intestine
      1. Anatomy
      2. Histology
        1. Modifications for absorption
        2. Lymph nodes
      3. Intestinal juice
        1. Composition
        2. Control of secretion
      4. Digestion
        1. Mechanical
        2. Chemical
      5. Absorption
        1. Carbohydrates and amino acids
        2. Lipids (lacteals)
          1. Micelles
          2. Chylomicrons
        3. Water and electrolytes
        4. Vitamins
    8. Large intestine
      1. Anatomy
      2. Histology
        1. Haustra
        2. Epiploic appendages
      3. Physiology
        1. Movement
        2. Chemical digestion - none
        3. Bacterial action
        4. Absorption
        5. Defecation
  6.   Immunity
    1. Types of immunity
      1. Non-specific immunity
        1. Mechanical factors
        2. Chemical factors
        3. Phagocytosis
        4. Inflammation
        5. Fever
        6. Antimicrobial substances
      2. Specific immunity
        1. Cellular (humoral) immunity
        2. Antibody mediated immunity
    2. Cellular immunity
      1. Types of T cells
      2. Mechanism of selecting, activating, and cloning T cells
      3. Importance of helper T cells
    3. Antibody mediated immunity
      1. Antigens
      2. Antibodies
        1. Heavy and light chains
        2. Variable and constant regions
        3. Classes of antibodies
        4. mechanism of selecting, activating, and cloning B cells
    4. Immunologic memory
    5. Immune disorders
      1. Autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
      2. Immuno-deficiency
      3. Autoimmune diseases
      4. Hypersensitivity (allergy)
      5. Tissue rejection
      6. Aging and immunity
  7. Types of cell division
    1. Mitosis
      1. Definitions
      2. Reasons for mitosis
      3. Cell cycle
        1. Interphase - phases
        2. Mitosis - phases
    2. Meiosis
      1. Definitions
      2. Reasons for meiosis
      3. Steps in meiosis
        1. Meiosis I
        2. Meiosis II
      4. Spermatogenesis
      5. Oogenesis
      6. Mitosis vs. meiosis
      7. Spermatogenesis vs. oogenesis
  8. Male reproductive system
    1. Chromosomal basis of sex
    2. Embryonic differentiation of male and female reproductive systems
    3. Male reproductive organs
      1. Testes
        1. Structure
          1. Seminiferous tubules
          2. Interstitial cells
        2. Functions
          1. Hormone secretion
          2. Spermatogenesis
      2. Epididymis
      3. Vas deferens
      4. Prostate gland
      5. Seminal vesicles
      6. Ejaculatory duct
      7. Bulbourethral gland
      8. Urethra
      9. Penis
        1. Structure
        2. Physiology
          1. Erection
          2. Ejaculation
      10. Semen
        1. contributing organs
        2. Composition
    4. Male hormones
      1. Folicele stimulating hormone (FSH)
      2. Leutinizing hormone (LH), interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)
      3. Testosterone
      4. Inhibin
  9. Female reproductive system
    1. Female reproductive organs
      1. Ovaries
        1. Structure and location
        2. Follicle development
        3. Ovulation - mechanism
        4. Hormone secretion - estrogen and progesterone
      2. Fallopian tubes
      3. Uterus
        1. Structure and location
        2. Histology
        3. Cyclic changes in the endometrium
      4. Vagina
      5. External genitalia (vulva)
      6. Mammary glands
      7. Menstrual cycle
      8. Ovarian cycle
      9. Uterine cycle
      10. Endocrine control and feedback cycles
      11. Menstrual irregularities
      12. Menarche
    2. Menopause
      1. Hormonal changes
      2. Anatomic changes
      3. Physiological changes
      4. Medical implications and therapies
    3. Female hormones
      1. FSH
      2. LH
      3. Estrogen
      4. Progesterone
      5. Inhibin
    4. Birth control
      1. Surgical methods
      2. Chemical methods
      3. Barrier methods
  10. Fertilization and early embryological development
    1. Male gametes
      1. Structure
      2. Viability
    2. Female gamete
      1. Structure
      2. Viability
    3. Fertilization
      1. Completion of meiosis II by female gametes
      2. Union of male and female nuclei
      3. Zygote formation
    4. Cleavage
    5. Morula
    6. Blastocyst
    7. Implantation
    8. Embryonic stage
      1. Gastrulation
      2. Neural tube formation
      3. Summary of changes
    9. Extraembryonic membranes
      1. Yolk sac
      2. Amnion
      3. Allantois
    10. Placenta
      1. Components
        1. Decidua
        2. Chorion
        3. Umbilical cord
      2. Functions
        1. Organ of exchange
        2. Hormonal secretion
      3. Placental abnormalities
  11. Fetal development and parturition
    1. Gestation
    2. Fetal development - summary of changes
    3. Trimesters
    4. Maternal adaptations to pregnancy
    5. Pregnancy risk factors
    6. Parturition and labor
      1. Physiology of labor induction (theories)
      2. Fetal presentation
      3. Stages of labor
    7. Cardiovascular adaptations of the newborn
    8. Lactation
      1. Hormonal control
        1. Milk secretion
        2. Milk letdown and ejection
      2. Effects of breast feeding
  12. Genetics
    1. Molecular genetics
      1. Structure of deoxyriboneucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
      2. Function of DNA and RNA
        1. Replication
        2. Protein synthesis
    2. Classical genetics
      1. Vocabulary
      2. Genetic problems
        1. Monohybrid cross
        2. Incomplete and codominance
        3. Sex-linked genesc. karyotyping
        4. Normal karyotype
        5. Autosomal abnormalities
        6. Sex chromosome abnormalities
    3. Genetic technology