Health Careers & Science Division / Metro Campus






I.    COURSE: BIO 2331

                        Fall 2022
                        Section Number:  81434
                        Classes meet:  There are no required meeting times other than for exams.       
                        Prerequisites:  BIO 1100 or BIO 1500 or departmental approval

                        Last day to withdraw with a W:  November 18th
                        Pass/No Pass option requires instructor approval


II.   CREDIT HOURS:       4 credit hours


III.  INSTRUCTOR :         Richard London
                                                Office:    MHCS 216
                                                Office Hours:   Tuesday 1pm - 2:30pm
                                                Virtual Office Hours:   Thursday 1pm - 2:30pm


                                                            Phone:    216-987-4255


IV.   COURSE DESCRIPTION :  Study of structure and function of human body. Focus on fundamental concepts of cellular structure, tissues, organs, and systems. Considers structure, function, and terminology of skeletal, muscular, integumentary, nervous and endocrine systems. Laboratory experiences include demonstrations, microscopic observations, anatomic models, and videos related to topics.


V.    REQUIRED LAB BOOK :               Allen, Laboratory Manual for Anatomy & Physiology, Wiley Publishing
                                                                     6th Edition: Online ISBN 9781119304142  Tri-C Bookstore ISBN 9781119429012





        OPTIONAL TEXTBOOK :             Tri-C Bookstore (Bound - buy back available) - Seeley, Anatomy & Physiology, McGraw Hill, 12th ed,
                                                                     ISBN 9781307427622

                                                                     Online (Loose Leaf - buy back not available) - Seeley, Anatomy & Physiology, McGraw Hill, 12th ed,
                                                                     ISBN 9781260399073


VI.   PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:  Upon satisfactory completion of BIO 2331 - Anatomy and Physiology I, the student should be able to perform
            the following outcomes and supporting objectives:


                                      A.   Demonstrate the relationship between anatomy and physiology.

                                B.   Demonstrate the relationship between anatomy and physiology.

                                C.   Define and list the different levels of structural organization of the body.

                                D.   Relate the concepts of homeostasis and integration to life functions.

                                E.   Describe the structure of a cell and explain the function of cellular organelles.

                                F.   Discuss the functions of the cell membrane as they relate to osmosis, diffusion, filtration, dialysis,
                                      active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis,
                                      generation of action potential and receptor binding.

                                G.   Describe the structure and function of the four primary tissue types.

                                H.   Locate the basic body membranes and discuss their functions.

                                I.    Describe and differentiate between the gross and microscopic anatomy of the organs, cells, and tissues of the skeletal,
                                      muscular, nervous, integumentary, and endocrine systems.

                                J.   Integrate the anatomical features of the human body with the functions of the integumentary.
                                      skeletal, muscular, nervous and endocrine systems.

                                K.  List the steps involved in ossification.

                                L.   Describe the physiology of muscle contraction.

                                M.  Describe the nature of a nervous impulse and explain integration of nervous impulses at the synapse

                                N.   Describe the physiological, physical and psychological effects of hyper and hypo secretion of hormones.

                                O.   Explain the regulatory role of the nervous and endocrine systems in maintaiing homeostasis.



VII.    COURSE METHOD:  All materials are available on the website: .

                                                  Exams are taken with me at the Metro campus.





      EXAMS - There will be four sectional exams given during the term each worth 100 points


   Exams will be available online at 10am on the following Fridays
                   and are due by midnight the next night:


September 30th, October 21st, November 18th, December 16th





                        SUMMARY OF POINTS

                                         4 Exams  100 points each                Total    400 points


                        GRADE EVALUATION

                                        400-360 A, 359-320 B, 319-280 C, 279-240 D, Below 240 F 


IX.    ATTENDANCE:   Failure to complete online lectures and labs does not constitute an automatic withdrawal.

                                         Students wishing to withdraw must follow College policy and time lines. The student is
responsible for all information and assignments given in class during their absence.
                                         The student is expected to be prepared for any exam or quiz
 when they resume classes.
                                         Exams are primarily based on lecture, lab, and video materials. 
                                         Students arriving late to class will not be
 given additional time to complete an exam.





If you experience a technical problem, you should call the 24/7 Customer Care Technical Support at 216-987-HELP
to receive technical phone support in the following areas:  Blackboard, Login issues (password resets),
Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office, & Tri-C email

Some technical support issues may not be able to be resolved over the phone.
While the Customer Care Technical Support team will work diligently to assist students,
it is possible that personal computer problems may require the student to contact outside technical support for assistance.

There are computers available for student use at each Campus Technology Learning Center (TLC) and your local public library.
These resources should be used to keep up with your coursework while you work to resolve a computer problem.


XI.    DISTANCE LEARNING CLASSES:  Information regarding distance learning classes can be found at the website -



XII.  WITHDRAWAL:   Withdrawal from a course for academic reasons must be initiated by a student prior to the withdrawal deadlines published  in the Class Schedule booklet each semester. Withdrawal must be in writing on specific forms available in the Office of Admissions and Records at each campus. Students who officially withdraw from a course prior to the last day of the second week of the semester will have no notation made on their permanent record. While an instructor may withdraw a student for excessive absences as outlined above, students not attending classes for any reasons should not expect an instructor to drop them officially from class. It is the student’s responsibility to withdraw from class officially by completing a withdrawal form from the Office of Admissions and Records by the deadline date. Failure to do so could result in an “F” grade for the course.


                             XIII.  INCOMPLETE (I) GRADES:    An “I” (incomplete) grade means that a student

                                            has not completed course requirements as outlined in section on “Evaluation Procedures” due to circumstances judged by the instructor to be beyond the student’s control. The student must request an “I” (incomplete) grade. It is not granted automatically.  Incomplete grades must be removed no later than the sixth week of the academic semester.


XIV.  ACADEMIC CREDIT: aware one (1) semester hour of college credit, the Ohio Board of Regents require two hours of significant student study outside the class for each one hour in class for the equivalent of an academic semester (16 weeks). This is a two credit hour class with two hours of lecture. Therefore, the required course load requirement is four hours of effective student effort per week for the entire semester. Course requirements have been designed to comply with the requirements of the Board of Regents. Make sure you can give this course an average of 4 hours a week by prioritizing your time accordingly. Proper planning, prioritization and dedication will enhance your success in this course.


XV.  CHEATING: Any student found cheating or plagiarizing would be withdrawn from class with a letter grade of F. Cheating includes but is not limited to copying from another student’s exam, quiz or homework assignments. This includes both present and past students.


XVI.  AMERICAN WITH DISABILITIES ACT STATEMENT: Any student with a documented disability (e.g. physical, learning, psychiatric, visual, hearing, etc.) who needs to arrange reasonable accommodations may contact The Access/Disabled Student Services office. If you suspect you may have a condition that would hinder your academic performance, the Access/Disabled Student Services office may be helpful in making a disability determination. Please contact the office at 987-4290.



                        Directions for finding Procedure 3354-1-30-03.5 Student Conduct Code


      1.      Login to My Tri-C Space. Click the College Life tab. On that page, go to the area "College Guidelines."
2.      Click on Tri-C's Policies and Procedures and perform an additional login to the Sharepoint on the
         server to access the site:
         Office of the President Policies & Procedures. 
3.      Click the link for [3354:1-30-xx] Academic & Student Affairs Policies & Procedures.
4.      Finally, on the next page, you will be able to view the Adobe PDF files entitled "3354-1-3003.5 Student conduct code"
         and "3354-1-30-03.6 Student judicial system."




                  STUDENT SUCCESS CENTER:  Room S&T332

                              Lecture notes * Lab Slides * Videos * Tutoring

                  TRI-C STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES:  Room SSC 208

                        Career Workshops (note taking, memory techniques, test anxiety, etc)


If you need any special course adaptations or accomodations because of a documented disability, please notify your instructorwithin a reasonable length of time, preferably the first week of the term with formal notice of that need (i.e. an official letter from the ACCESS office).  Accomodations will not be made retroactively.


                                                For specific information pertaining to ADA accomodation please contact your campus ACCESS office or visit online at:  Blackboard accessability information is available at:


                                    Eastern             (216) 987-2052        TDD (216) 987-2230*
Metropolitan    (216) 987-4344        TDD (216) 987-4048*
Western            (216) 987-5079        TDD (216) 987-5117*
Westshore        (216) 987-5079        TDD (216) 987-5117*
Brunswick        (216) 987-5079        TDD (216) 987-5117*
Off Site            (216) 987-5079        TDD (216) 987-5117*



  1. Introduction
    1.     Definitions
      1.     Anatomy
      2.     Physiology
    2.     Levels of organization
      1.     Chemicals
      2.     Cells
      3.     Tissues
      4.     Organs
      5.     Systems
      6.     Organisms
    3.     Life processes
      1.     Metabolism
        1.     Catabolism
        2.     Anabolism
      2.     Excitability
      3.     Conductivity
      4.     Growth
      5.     Contractility
      6.     Differentiation
      7.     Reproduction
    4.     Anatomic characteristics
    5.     Directional terms - anatomic position
    6.     Anatomic names
    7.     Planes
      1.     Sagittal (midsagittal)
      2.     Coronal (frontal)
      3.     Transverse(horizontal)
    8.     Body cavities
      1.     Dorsal
        1.     Cranial
        2.     Spinal
      2.     Ventral
        1.     Thoracic
        2.     Abdominal
        3.     Pelvis
    9.     Homeostasis
      1.     Definition
      2.     Methods of maintaining
        1.     Positive feedback
        2.     Negative feedback
    10.     Cell structure
      1.     Cell (plasma) membrane
        1.     Structure
          1.     Phospholipid bilayer
          2.     Peripheral proteins
        2.     Functions
        3.     Membrane transport
          1.     Passive processes
          2.     Active processes
      2.     Cytoplasm
      3.     Organelles
        1.     Nucleus
          1.     Nuclear membrane
          2.     Chromatin
          3.     Nucleolus
        2.     Ribosomes
        3.     Endoplasmic reticulum
        4.     Golgi complex
        5.     Mitochondria
        6.     Lysosomes
        7.     Centrosome
        8.     Cytoskeleton
        9.     Cilia and flagella
      4.     Inclusions
    11.     Tissues
      1.     Epithelial tissue
        1.     Characteristics
        2.     Types
          1.     Squamous
          2.     Cuboidal
          3.     Columnar
          4.     Transitional
        3.     Glandular epithelium
          1.     Endocrine
          2.     Exocrine
      2.     Connective tissue
        1.     Characteristics
        2.     Embryonic connective tissue
        3.     Adult connective tissue
          1.     Connective tissue proper
            1.     Loose (areolar)
            2.     Adipose
            3.     Dense (collagenous)
            4.     Elastic
            5.     Reticular
            6.     Reticulo-endothelial
            7.     Cartilage
            8.     Hyaline
            9.     Fibrocartilage
            10.     Elastic
          2.     Bone
          3.     Blood
        4.     Muscular
          1.     Characteristics
          2. Types
            1. Smooth (visceral)
            2. Stridated (skeletal)
            3. Cardiac
        5. Nervous
          1. Characteristics
          2. Cell types
            1. Neurons
            2. Neuroglia
        6. Membranes
          1. Mucous membrane
          2. Serous membrane
          3. Cutaneous membrane (skin)
          4. Synovial membrane
    12. Integumentary
      1. Functions
      2. Skin
        1. Epidermis
        2. Dermis
        3. Hypodermis
      3. Accessory Structures
    13. Skeletal system
      1. Functions
      2. Histology
        1. Composition of osseous tissue
          1. Cell types
          2. Intercellular matrix
        2. Types of bony tissue
          1. Compact bone (haversian system)
          2. Cancellous (spongy) bone
        3. Gross anatomy of bones
          1. Long bones
          2. Short bones
          3. Flat bones
          4. Irregular bones
          5. Wormian (sutural) bones
          6. Sesamoid bones
      3. Ossification
        1. Sequence of events
        2. Intramembranous
        3. Endochondral (intracartilagenous)
      4. Bone growth
        1. Epiphyseal plate
        2. Epiphyseal line
        3. Growth in diameter
        4. Homeostasis
          1. Remodeling
          2. Hormones
          3. Vitamins
      5. Fractures
        1. Types
        2. Healing
        3. Remodeling
      6. Axial skeleton
        1. Skull
        2. Hyoid bone
        3. Vertebral column
          1. Curvatures
          2. Disorders
        4. Thorax
      7. Appendicular skeleton
        1. Pectoral girdle
        2. Upper extremity
        3. Pelvic girdle
        4. Lower extremity
    14. Articulations
      1. Classification by movement
        1. Synarthrosis
        2. Amphiarthrosis
        3. Diarthrosis
      2. Classification by structure
        1. Fibrous
          1. Sutures
          2. Synostosis
          3. Syndesmosis
          4. Gomphosis
        2. Cartilaginous
          1. Synchondrosis
          2. Symphysis
        3. Synovial
          1. Structure
          2. Types
            1. Ball and socket (spheroid)
            2. Condyloid (ellipsoidal)
            3. Hinge (ginglymus)
            4. Pivot (trochoid)
            5. Saddle (sellaris)
            6. Gliding (arthrodia)
          3. Movements permitted
    15. Muscular system
      1. Characteristics
      2. Functions
      3. Types
      4. Anatomy of skeletal muscle
        1. Connective tissue
        2. Blood and nerve supply
        3. Histology
          1. Cell structure
          2. Myofilaments
          3. Sarcomere
            1. A band
            2. I band
      5. Physiology of muscle contraction
        1. Sliding filament theory
        2. Structure and function of neuromuscular junction (NMJ)
        3. Motor unit
        4. Steps in muscle contraction
          1. Resting potential
          2. Impulse in motor neuron
          3. Events at NMJ
          4. Action potential
          5. Repolarization
        5. Energy for muscle contraction
        6. "All or none"
        7. Kinds of muscle contraction
          1. Twitch
          2. Tetany
          3. Isotonic
          4. Isometric
        8. Tonus
        9. Atrophy/hypertrophy
        10. Agonist, antagonist, synergist
    16. Nervous system
      1. Organization
        1. Central nervous system (CNS)
        2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
      2. Histology
        1. Neuroglia
          1. Functions
          2. Types
        2. Neurons
          1. Structure
            1. Axons
            2. Dendrites
            3. Cell body
          2. Classification
            1. Structure
            2. Function
      3. Physiology
        1. Nerve impulse
          1. Resting potential
          2. Action potential
          3. Repolarization
          4. Refractory period
          5. Saltatory transmission
          6. Speed of transmission
        2. Conduction across a synapse
          1. Role of the neurotransmitter
          2. Synaptic delay
          3. Excitatory transmissions
          4. Inhibitory transmissions
      4. Spinal cord
        1. Meninges
        2. Surface anatomy
        3. Cross section
          1. Gray matter
          2. White matter
        4. Spinal tracts
          1. Ascending tracts
          2. Descending tracts
        5. Spinal cord as a reflex center
          1. Anatomic arrangement of spinal nerves
          2. Components of the reflex arc
          3. Types of reflexes
          4. Clinical significance
        6. Spinal nerves
          1. Coverings
          2. Names
          3. Branches
          4. Plexi
      5. Brain
        1. Meninges
        2. Cerebrospinal fluid
          1. Ventricles
          2. Formation
          3. Absorption
          4. Composition
        3. Blood supply
        4. Brain stem
          1. Medulla oblongata
          2. Pons varolii
          3. Midbrain
        5. Diencephalon
          1. Thalamus
          2. Hypothalamus
        6. Cerebrum (telencephalon)
          1. Cortex
          2. Hemispheres
          3. White matter
          4. Cerebral nuclei (basal ganglia)
          5. Limbic system
            1. Functional areas of the cerebral cortex sensory areas
            2. Motor areas
            3. Association areas
          6. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
        7. Cerebellum
        8. Neurotransmitters
        9. Cranial nerves
      6. Motor, sensory, and integrative functions
        1. Sensory functions
          1. Receptors
          2. Levels of sensations
          3. Somatosensory area of the brain
          4. Sensory pathways
        2. Motor functions
          1. Components of motor pathways
          2. Pyramidal pathways
          3. Extrapyramidal pathways
        3. Integrative functions
          1. Association areas
          2. Integrative areas: taste and smell
        4. Taste buds and nerve pathways
        5. Olfactory receptors and nerve pathways
      7. Vision
        1. Anatomy of the eye
          1. Accessory structures
          2. Fibrous tunic
          3. Vascular tunic
          4. Nervous tunic
          5. Lens
          6. Cavities and chambers
          7. Extrinsic and intrinsic muscles
          8. Aqueous and vitreous humor
        2. Physiology of vision
          1. Refraction
          2. Accommodation
          3. Constriction and dilation of the pupil
          4. Convergence
          5. Stimulation of the photoreceptors
            1. Rods
            2. Cones
          6. Visual pathway
          7. Visual field
          8. Disorders of the eye
      8. Hearing and equilibrium
        1. Anatomy of the ear
          1. External ear
          2. Middle ear
          3. Inner ear
            1. Bony labyrinth
            2. Membranous labyrinth
        2. Physiology of hearing
          1. Stimulation of the receptors
          2. Nerve pathway
          3. Pitch versus frequency
          4. Hearing disorders
        3. Physiology of equilibrium
          1. Static equilibrium
            1. Definition
            2. Stimulation of the receptors
            3. Nerve pathways
          2. Dynamic equilibrium
            1. Definition
            2. Stimulation of the receptors
            3. Nerve pathways
        4. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
        5. General features
          1. Visceral motor impulses compared to somatic motor impulses
          2. Two neuron system
            1. Preganglionic neuron
            2. Postganglionic neuron
          3. Divisions
            1. Sympathetic
            2. Parasympathetic
        6. Sympathetic division
          1. Preganglionic neurons
          2. Sympathetic ganglia
          3. Possible synapses
          4. Neurotransmitters
          5. Receptors
        7. Parasympathetic division
          1. Preganglionic neurons
          2. Parasympathetic ganglia
          3. Neurotransmitters
          4. Receptors
        8. Visceral autonomic reflexes
        9. Integration and control of the ANS
    17. Endocrine system
      1. General features
        1. Functions
        2. Definitions
        3. Endocrine versus nervous system
        4. Regulation of hormonal secretion
        5. Hormone transport and metabolism
        6. Mechanisms of hormonal action
          1. Second messenger
          2. Gene activation
        7. Types of Hormones
      2. Hypothalamus
        1. Anatomy
        2. Regulating hormones
        3. Paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei
      3. Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
        1. Embryological origin
        2. Anatomic and physiologic relation to the hypothalamus
        3. Hypophyseal portal system
        4. Hormones secreted
          1. Names
          2. Functions
          3. Control of secretion
          4. Effects of hypo- and hypersecretion
      4. Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
        1. Embryological origin
        2. Anatomic and physiologic relation to the hypothalamus
        3. Hypophyseal tract
        4. Hormones secreted
          1. Names
          2. Functions
          3. Control of secretion
          4. Effects of hypo- and hypersecretion
      5. Thyroid gland
        1. Structure and location
        2. Histology
        3. Hormones secreted
          1. Names
          2. Functions
          3. Control of secretion
          4. Effects of hypo- and hypersecretion
      6. Parathyroid gland
        1. Structure and location
        2. Parathormone
          1. Function
          2. Control of secretion
      7. Adrenal cortex
        1. Histology
        2. Hormones secreted
          1. Names
          2. Functions
          3. Control of secretion
          4. Effects of hypo- and hypersecretion
      8. Adrenal medulla
        1. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
        2. Effects of the hormones
      9. Pancreas
        1. Histology
        2. Hormones secreted
          1. Names
          2. Functions
          3. Control of secretion
          4. Effects of hypo- and hypersecretion
      10. Pineal gland
        1. Structure and location
        2. Melatonin
          1. Effects
          2. Control
      11. Thymus gland
        1. Structure and location
        2. Relationship between age and structure
        3. Functions of the hormones secreted
      12. Other endocrine tissue - kidney, gastrointenstinal (GI) tract, etc.